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Electronic commerce ( in English : e-commerce ) is a new term in the world of economics that appeared with the spread of the Internet in the early nineties of the twentieth century , but some researchers indicated its existence from the seventies of the last century through electronic information exchange systems between industrial companies (Electronic Data) . Interchange -EDI). 

E-commerce features:

1- Facilitating the access of products to customers.

2- Save time and effort.

It is the process of selling, buying or exchanging products, services and information using an internal or external Internet .


E-commerce intersects with many disciplines such as accounting , business law , computer science , consumer behavior, economics , engineering, finance, human resource management, information systems management , marketing, robotics and statistical sciences.

Terms in e-commerce

The broadest definition of e- commerce includes serving customers, cooperating with business partners, and conducting electronic transactions within the organization as well as the process of exchanging, selling or buying products, services and information.

The e-marketplace
It is a market where buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods, services, money and information via the Internet .


A local network within a company or government that uses Internet tools such as: browsers and the Internet Protocol.

Extra net A network that uses the Internet to connect a group of internal networks.

social computing

It is a computerized system that includes social interactions and behaviors using a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, social networks, and others. It focuses on improving cooperation and interaction between people. As for its role in e-commerce, it allows people to work together, communicate with experts, and learn about products recommended by their friends.

Social network
A class of Internet applications that help connect friends, business partners, or individuals with specific interests by providing free services such as photo viewing, e-mail , and blogging.

social commerce
They are e-commerce activities that are carried out through social networks or social programs such as: Web applications 2.

Virtual reality
A three-dimensional computer simulation, users of the virtual world have what is called a virtual character “Avatar”, through these virtual characters the user can interact with the virtual environment such as building or sharing places, cars and many other items. The most famous example of a virtual world is “SECOND LIFE”.

Trade rankings
Nature of the business process
traditional trade
The process of exchanging and communicating goods, services or information in a tangible way.

The process of exchanging and communicating goods, services or information electronically.

Partial e-commerce
A mixture of traditional commerce and electronic commerce, so that part of the business process is electronic and the other part is tangible.

Business relationship between subscribers
From company to company
It is the trade exchange that exists between one company and another, such as a manufacturing company that buys raw materials from another company. For example, a company that manufactures cleaning materials needs chemicals to manufacture its products, these chemicals are produced by another company and you buy them from them.

From company to consumer

It is the trade exchange between companies on the one hand and individual consumers on the other, such as Dell that sells products that it manufactures directly to the consumer without the presence of an intermediary. Such as the process of trade exchange between Dell and the customer directly.

From company to company to consumer
It is the trade exchange from one company to another and then to individual consumers. You sell chocolate to another company and then the company sells the chocolate to its employees. Godiva, for example, is a company. Another example is a manufacturer of electrical appliances that sells devices to retailers, and then the retailers sell them directly to consumers.

From consumer to company

It is the trade exchange from individual consumers to companies. For example, a woman sells her handicrafts to a heritage company.

From department to department within the company
Represents all activities and internal information of the company that involve the exchange of goods, services or information between the various departments and individuals within the company. Like Samsung, it has several different units, each of which manufactures a particular technology and sells it to another unit within the company.

From the company to its employees (B2E)
It is the company’s provision of goods, services or information to its individual employees. For example, a company sells a specific product or service to its employees at a special price and the return on profits is shown in the company’s account.

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
It is the direct trade from consumer to consumer. Such as the process of trading between a person who owns a musical instrument and wants to sell it and another person who wants to buy it.

Represented by persons or groups that communicate or collaborate electronically. Like two or more companies collaborating electronically to design and produce a specific product.

From government to its citizens or to corporations (E-Government)
Represented by government units buying or providing products, services, or information from or to their citizens, individuals or companies. Such as submitting a scholarship application to the Ministry of Education via the Ministry’s website.

Factors that led to the spread of e-commerce

Google revolution
During the early years of the emergence of e-commerce, it was affected by many companies such as Amazon , eBay and Yahoo, but after 2001 e-commerce became very much affected by Google, due to the emergence of the so-called Google ads, which constituted a great leap in the life of Google, it has facilitated Users are required to advertise and market their products using Google Ads. Google is no longer a search engine only. There are many other services it provides, such as Google Maps, book search, instant translation, Google Museum, Google Tours, Google Shopping, and other services that have greatly contributed to the development and spread of e-commerce. [3] Not only Google is the latest revolution, there are many other companies that provide marketing and advertising services.

The emergence of the second generation of the Internet – Web 2.0 [ edit ] Web2: It is the second generation of services related to the Internet, and it is a social network that relies heavily on users to add or modify content by changing or deleting information. Web Applications 2: A wiki is a website that allows multiple online users to collaborate on adding, deleting, or editing content, linking any number of pages, and using a wiki to facilitate the co-writing of documents with minimal restrictions. The wiki is one of the social software that has spread rapidly, and has had an impact in the way of knowledge exchange and sharing across networks. The free, open, multilingual Wikipedia is one of the most popular applications of the wiki program. BlogsIt is a spider page on which posts appear dated and arranged in ascending chronological order, accompanied by a mechanism for archiving old posts. . The content may include hyperlinks and multimedia elements and may include personal, professional or academic information. Most blog applications allow content archiving, the ability to search between articles, and the opportunity for readers to make comments. It is provided by Google Blogger, the most famous micro-blog site.Or what is known as micro-blogging, which is derived from blogging, but it differs from normal blogging, as it is limited to sending messages or updates with a maximum of only 140 characters per message. The post is either in the form of mobile text messages, an e-mail, a message in an instant messaging program, or using special programs, in addition to the website itself on the Web . Perhaps the most famous example of micro-blogging is Twitter. RSS is a service for exchanging news coming from a forum, blog, or any other website without having to access it, and it is also good when roaming.

The impact of Web 2.0 on consumer behavior
The impact of the emergence of Web 2.0 on the behavior of users, as they have new tendencies, including:

Use of new communication tools.
Confidence in advice given in electronic form.
Increased desire to buy online.
Desire to provide feedback on a particular product or service.
Take advantage of the comments of other users of a particular service or product.


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